“These military interventions are in the context of a previous Turkish intervention in northern Iraq, with the intention of conducting combat exercises in several regional countries and signing military agreements with Arab and African countries. The idea is to develop Turkish relations abroad in order to promote military exports, maximize economic returns and increase regional influence on the basis of a hard power,” he added: “Erdogan`s aggressive nationalism now goes beyond Turkey`s borders and aims to obtain land in Greece and Iraq. Among many agreements was a separate agreement with the United States, the Chester Concession. In the United States, the treaty was rejected by several political groups, including the Committee against the Treaty of Lausanne (COLT), and on January 18, 1927, the U.S. Senate refused to ratify the treaty by 50 votes to 34, six votes less than the two-thirds requested by the Constitution.  As a result, Turkey cancelled the concession.  In return, Turkey renounced all claims to former Turkish territories outside its new borders and pledged to guarantee the rights of its minorities. A separate agreement between Greece and Turkey provided for mandatory minority exchanges. In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire also had to relinquish its political and financial rights over Egypt and Sudan. In addition, at a commemorative ceremony in 2016, Erdogan said he rejected any understanding of the history that takes 1000 years of history of his nation and civilization in 1919” Whoever let our last 200 years, even 600 years with his victories and defeats, and who jumps directly from the ancient Turkish history to the Republic, is an enemy of our nation and our state. , he explained. With the expiry of this century-old treaty in 2023, Turkey will itself enter a new era by drilling oil and dug up a new canal linking the Black Sea to the Marmara Sea to recover the costs of passing ships. This seismic evolution, combined with Turkey`s recent military adventurism, suggests that the geographical contours of the region will certainly undergo a gigantic metamorphosis after the end of the Treaty of Lausanne.
Mohamed Abdel-Kader Khalil, an Egyptian expert on Turkish affairs, said: “Turkish foreign policy in the Middle East is linked to the use of Turkish military capabilities in the region. This is reflected in Turkish military concentrations on the borders of Iraq and Syria and in its participation in the Red Sea through an agreement on the island of Sawken, Sudan, as well as by the Turkish military intervention in the northern Syrian town of Afrin. The “Lausanne II Conference”, which lasted three months and culminated in the signing of the “Treaty of Lausanne”, signed on 24 July 1923 at the “Beau Rivage Plus” hotel in Lausanne, southern Switzerland, by the contractual partners of the victorious powers after the First World War (particularly Great Britain, France and Italy). , and the Ottoman Empire, which presided over its delegation to the conference, Ismet Inonu, and on the basis of which the Ottoman Empire was officially divided, and the Turkish Republic was founded under the presidency of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. In September 1984, after years of negotiations, the British and Chinese signed a formal agreement authorizing the re-island to China in 1997, in exchange for China`s promise to maintain Hong Kong`s capitalist system, and on July 1, 1997, Hong Kong was officially ceded to China, which included a series of high-ranking Chinese and British personalities. , the head of the new government in Hong Kong Tung Chee Hwa , has established a policy based on the concept of “one country, two systems” that retains the role of Hong Kong as a major capitalist center in Asia.